Homoeopathy

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English
Type
Paperback
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Beaconsfield
Author(s) Paschero
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Dr Paschero was the revered founder of the Escuela Mdica Homeoptica Argentina and a homoeopath of international stature. A classical homoeopath of the pure Kentian school he trained with Kent's immediate successor Dr Arthur Grimmer in Chicago he possessed a level of insight and understanding of the classical method that has rarely been matched. He also brought to his work a keen knowledge of depth psychology which, blending perfectly with the classical principles, added considerably to the range and lucidity of his thought.

Paschero's prolific writings on all aspects of homoeopathy reveal his deep love and respect for humankind both in sickness and in health, and his commitment to the furthering of its potential to transcend its moral and physical limitations by means of the highest standards of homoeopathic treatment. They place him firmly within the finest humanistic tradition of medicine. Homoeopathy comprises a selection of the best of his writings, spanning a long and highly productive career.

Beginning with a section on homoeopathic philosophy, the book explores the meaning and implications of the vitalistic outlook that underpins Hahnemann's and Kent's view of the nature and purpose of human life. The essential principles of homoeopathy are examined and elucidated in turn, including the Law of Cure, the chronic miasms, and the significance of the mental picture among the totality of symptoms.

This is followed by an in-depth look at clinical aspects such as casetaking, finding the simillimum and child psychology in homoeopathy, amply illustrated with examples drawn from the author's casebooks. The book concludes with a selection of essays on the materia medica, consolidating the remedy pictures that emerge in the previous section.

'Knowledge, in all its aspects, brings our understanding to the fore. However you define excellence in prescribing, knowledge is always an essential ingredient. Who we are as a person is the most important factor in how we live our life, and thus also in how we practise as a homeopath. Pascheros Homoeopathy, a superb collection of his essays, weaves these insights, among many others, into the fabric of what homeopathy is, how it works and what it means to be a homeopath.
I have always looked only to Hahnemanns Organon and Kents Lectures as that masterwork, whenever I needed to reinforce my footing in the ideas of homeopathy. The clarity of thought and uncompromising adherence to the principles of homeopathy in these books are always a sufficient and unswerving guide. I am delighted to say that now, after all these years, I have found another book to add to that duo Pascheros Homoeopathy.
... One basic principle discussed in many different ways is that of our grasp of the holistic perspective. The physician, no matter what therapeutics he employs, must be aware that every symptom is a part of the patients life context. Each symptom has a meaning to be unlocked, once a complete understanding has been gained of the pathological expression and behaviour of a unique and untold human life. If this seems self-evident, just recall how many homeopaths prescribe on isolated symptoms or give more than one remedy at a time. Paschero addresses the issue in his chapter Unicism and Pluralism. If there was ever a doubt in your mind on the matter, this will clarify the case for single remedy prescribing for you. Hahnemann established as a basic clinical principle the unity of the patients reaction, that is, the totality of symptoms that reflect the dynamic derangement. This very personal total symptom picture can never be the expression of an affected isolated organ or a disturbed localised function.
Furthermore, Paschero has the courage to state that prescribing on isolated symptoms rather than the dynamic totality, in addition to violating the fundamental tenets of homeopathy, can be suppressive and can cause great harm. Few single-remedy, constitutional prescribers take that logical step, despite its being so self-evident from the philosophy of homeopathy in the writings of Hahnemann.
Another of the many topics on which Paschero sheds light is his discussion on the deep, holistic, constitutional understanding of the patient. He states the issue beautifully: The unconscious tension we call instinct is the psychic expression of that emotional will, transmitting the requirements of cellular activity to the conscious awareness. That is why the organic will the deep necessity that appears in the conscious ego as a motivation to act is what best defines the nature of being and best summarises an individuals symptom picture, and We all live the unconscious reality of our innermost being and this determines not only the complex mechanism of our will but also the energetic quality of the vital force that regulates our bodily functions.
There is the brilliant insight that the symptoms report that the patient gives us is clouded by the very illness we are trying to cure. The homeopath works with the symptoms that the patient translates though a compromised ego (self), 'falsified' by those very compromises destined to defend it from his instincts. More than just hearing them, the homeopath must try to 'see' them and interpret them through, and in spite of, the patients ego. How can we bypass these distracting and illusionary symptoms and feelings to get to the real essence of the vital forces morbid disorder? The first step is to understand the workings of the personality, psyche and the healing process. Once more, the theme of knowledge and deep understanding is emphasised. Fortunately, much of that knowledge can be gained in this book.
The essays on materia medica deal mainly with some of the mental and general symptoms that he has found most interesting. Although these discussions are not as complete as in the fuller materia medicas, they draw on his vast experience and are therefore worthy of note. What I found particularly helpful, however, are the philosophical comments woven into these remedy discussions - for example, Localised reactions express the vital intention of the whole person. This reminds us of what Paschero so frequently emphasises in the earlier sections that physical symptoms are expressing exactly the same message as the mental state.
I have limited my comments to just a few samples of the authors writings to give you the flavour of this amazing book. It has been difficult to choose between the hundreds of quotable passages, wonderful insights and eloquent turns of phrase. Needless to add, I highly recommend it and expect that once you have read it you will find yourself rereading it over and over again like the other important classic works. Lastly, as a bibliophile, I would like to comment on the quality of the publication itself. As is customary from Beaconsfield Publishers, the book is beautiful and of high quality. The binding is solid, the paper is first-rate and the font is clear and easy on the eye to read.'

edited by Dr Patricia Haas Homeopathic Links
Meer informatie
ISBN906584418
AuteurPaschero
TypePaperback
TaalEnglish
Publicatiedatum2000-08-30
Pagina's247
UitgeverBeaconsfield
Recensie

This book review is reprinted with the permission of the National Center for Homeopathy

Reviewed by Jay Yasgur RPh, MSc

Homeopathy is the latest offering in a long line of fine homeopathic books from the British publisher Beaconsfield. It is the first English edition of 35 lectures which the great Argentinian teacher and master of homeopathy, Tomas Paschero (19O4-1986), gave. Paschero's father, a butcher by trade, wanted his son to do the same, but fortunately for homeopathy he did not, deciding to study medicine instead. He converted to homeopathy after witnessing the cure of an obstinate case of eczema and later studied with the Kentian homeopaths William Griggs, Eugene Underhill, and Julia Minerva-Green, eventually becoming a disciple of Arthur Grimmer.

Paschero established the Asociacion Medica Homeopatica Argentina in 1933, founded the Escuela Medica Homeopatica in 1972, and was President of the LIGA in 1973. He was truly a potent beacon spreading the luminescence of homeopathy far and wide among our Latin American neighbors.

This book of lectures is divided into three categories: doctrine, clinical aspects, and materia medica.

In the 1963 lecture, "Finding the Simillimum," he shows his Kentian colors by stating:

"Mental symptoms are not restricted to conscious psychological expressions or a person's behaviour. Mental symptoms are classified as symptoms of the will, intelligence, emotions and memory. Symptoms pertaining to the will refer to instinctive tendencies that determine desires and aversions regarding a person's relationship with life and fellow human beings, or even desires and aversions linked to our instinct for preservation-of our own selves or of our species-such as food preferences and sexuality. Our instinctiveness is grounded in the unconscious will that emerges from the innermost depths of our being, where vital energy presides over metabolic changes in the cell and structures our psychophysical personality."-p. 90

And later, in a comparative materia medica lecture (1955), he offers a bit of psychological jam between delicious slices of Sepia and Lycopodium:

"We have seen that behind Lycopodium's facade of haughtiness, pride, misanthropy, disdainful indifference and domineering attitude, lies a deep, hidden lack of self-confidence, a trepidation and timidity which fills him with anxiety due to the conflict between what he wants to be but cannot, between his desire for self- affirmation and what is permitted by society. In contrast, Sepia's anxiety is caused by the conflict between the active, masculine-oriented desire for success and self-affirmation, and the emotional coldness or inability to give affection, which is an essentially passive, feminine trait. This is why Sepia is generally a female remedy. While Lycopodium's conflict is one of active self-affirmation, Sepia's conflict is one of passive, emotional and sexual giving."-p. 207

Paschero doesn't stop there but continues to weave interesting thoughts on sexuality, frigidity, aggressiveness, anxiety, and self-reproach.

This book is a nice series of well translated lectures and would be a good addition to your bookshelf if you don't have anything by this 20th century homeopathic master. It possesses two indices; remedy and general. It is a quality paperback (sewn and wrapped) and thus should enjoy a long and servile life, just as its esteemed author!

Homeopathy Today, June 2001, Volume 21, Number 6

This book review is reprinted with the permission of the Homeopathic Academy of Naturopathic Physicians

Reviewed by Barbara Osawa CCH

I was first introduced to the writings of Dr. Paschero years ago at a seminar. What impressed me then was his ability to grasp what David Little calls the disease "gestalt," to present a synthesis of the totality of the therapeutic cornerstone, "what is to be cured," in a way that was both fascinating and illuminating. I have eagerly awaited a translation of his work in English, and commend Beaconsfield Publishers for this worthy addition to the modem classical literature.

Tomas Paschero was born in Buenos Aires in 1904. He traveled to the US in 1934 on a research trip where he worked with Dr. William Griggs, Dr. Eugene Underhill, and Dr. Julia Green. He was then accepted as a disciple of Dr. Grimmer, Kent's immediate successor, with whom he formed a close personal and professional relationship. Dr. Paschero was the founder of the Escuela Medica Homeopatica in Argentina and was elected president of the International Homeopathic Medical League in 1973. This book is a collection of Dr. Paschero's writings and cases that spans his long and productive career.

"Precisely because humility is required, the art of medicine is an occupation of the highest spiritual order." This quote from the preface of the book captures the essence of the author, whose dedication to the highest order of cure and deep knowledge of human nature shines on every page of this book. Among the noteworthy names scattered throughout the text, Paschero seems particularly influenced by Samuel Hahnemann's homeopathic principles and Sigmund Freud's division of the psyche into the conscious and unconscious, His unique ability to synthesize the problems of the human psyche with the principles of homeopathic practice make this book essential reading for the serious practitioner.

'Me book is divided into three parts: philosophical writings, clinical practice and materia medica of 15 remedies. The early lectures elaborate on Hahnemann's vitalistic principles and other essential topics, including miasms, casetaking, evaluating symptoms, second prescriptions, and prognosis. He points out on page 1, that "Hahnemann doesn't begin his Organon by expounding the law of similarity... but by pointing out that the one and only lofty mission of the physician is to cure. He maintains that in order to cure a patient, the physician must understand the biological and emotional maladjustment within that individual's environment as a process involving the whole person." It is in this complex, anthropological view of disease, elucidated over many pages, that he reveals his extraordinary psychological insight and profound knowledge of vital disturbance according to Hahnemann. He opens the book by claiming that every physician must take up the mission of defending the value of Hahnemann's principles and that there are two requirements, the assimilation of the principles and a certain level of self-awareness. The latter domain may have been Dr. Paschero's true calling.

His teaching resounds with philosophy, whether he is talking about health, disease or a cured case. Rather than attempt an explanation of these broad and important concepts, I've selected some quotes that give some idea of the depth of his thinking.

"Psychologically we reach maturity as human beings when we transcend the self-centered phase, where we try to manipulate people and events according to our own self-interest, into an altruistic, objective stage in which we acknowledge the reality and needs of others as much as our own. In Homeopathy, the patient is considered as a whole person who, as his personality evolves, develops adaptive responses to his environment."

"Life is a medium through which we can fully realize our potential. Disease is a struggle against the limitations of the inner and outer worlds, obstacles for the realization of the true self. The organism, with its complex psychosomatic structure, and the personality together serve a purpose which can be determined only by the innermost self that struggles to emerge to the light of consciousness. Seen in this way, the human being has two conflicting value systems: on the one hand, disease as a physical expression of change in the vital rhythm, inhibiting the free expression of the life force; on the other hand, the essential value of being which fulfills a specific, personal life cycle in order to develop an awareness of its own reality."

"Disease is a process of adaptation to the environment, to the social and biological world that surrounds the individual. This adaptation is not only instinctive but also produced by the intelligence-the ability to decide, reason, and assess circumstances-which is why disease, or adaptation, is a problem of freedom. Disease presents itself as a complex effect of immediate or distant causes that have settled in the patient's character, symptoms and pathology. Inevitably, this synthetic vision of the clinical symptom picture is the result of a deep perception of chronic disease. When the physician aims to understand the patient's whole history, he will arrive at the constitutional diathesis that generated the current pathological process."

However, it is his writings on mental symptoms that are particularly insightful and obviously of great importance, dominating most chapters of the book. Like many others, Paschero brings a blend of influences to bear on this subject, but the end result is his own unique perspective. He begins a lecture on the subject with questions prefaced in the following way. "It is from this soul, dynamis, psyche, or mind, where the elements that give unity to the organism reside, that the homeopath draws the mental symptoms that express the total reaction to the patient. But what are these mental symptoms and why do they represent the organic totality of the human being? Furthermore, what meaning do the metaphysical terms 'soul' and 'spirit' have for the modem, scientifically oriented physician?" He maintains that human reason is recent in creation and, being beyond animal instincts, is the most important organ of consciousness, conferring special meaning to the problem of disease.

'Me human, he says is not an organism, but has an organism that belongs to his or her being. "Medicine cannot be merely biological, it is also anthropological. Anthropology is human biology-that is, biology made up of physical, mental, and spiritual elements." From here, he further distinguishes personality as being "the myth that each of us lives in aspiration of the regard of others, of success and self-affirmation" and person as "what we are in our innermost depths; it is what conditions our moods, what we express through our unconscious will, and from where our motivations to act originate." His description of the psyche is very much the Freudian trio of id, ego and superego. He says, "The three distinct formations arise from the undifferentiated mass of impulses and tendencies that Hahnemann called the vital force, Freud called 'libido' or life instinct and Bergson called elan vital."

Continuing in the same vein, "What we call 'spirit,' then is not some transcendental state of an exceptionally evolved human being, but that capacity for awareness of our own selves as subjects as well as objects within a world whose reality we must cope." Concluding this discussion, he says, "In order to discover what is behind a patient's mental symptoms, it is essential for the homeopath to be familiar with the various defense mechanisms that an individual may employ."

He finally connects the origins of mental disturbance with suppression, and therefore the miasms. "From the depths of vitality in the 'human being rise currents of energy that seek release throughout the whole organism, from the center to the periphery, from the more vital organs to the less vital organs, from the mind to the excretory organs... when this outward flow of energy is blocked, the initial stages of disease are produced. Hahnemann called this psora, which is the basic disorder characterized by suppression in all its forms. Hahnemann considered mental metastasis to be the deepest and most entrenched stage of the morbid process."

From his notes on the miasms: "What happens is that human instincts and impulses have been deranged in their dynamic origin-they have been disturbed by a miasmatic affection which compromises their functional tendency towards transforming the individual into a mature person." Paschero likens this to what Freud called the individual disposition, noted in the formidable resistance of many neurotics undergoing psycho-analysis.

In the chapter titled "Curing the Constitutional Disease," he details his understanding of the miasms according to Hahnemann. Much of the discussion will be familiar to those acquainted with the writings of Hahnemann, J. H. Allen, and Kent on the subject. Generally, be discusses the miasms in terms of their mental images and stages of life. 'Mere are two topics that might be considered unusual.

First, he claims that all children are tubercular . ...... They are born with diminished organic functions, which are psora together with syphilis-whose psychological trait is that same basic feeling of insecurity or inferiority." As he has passed away, we can't ask him to clarify this.

I found this quote from the last part of the chapter particularly interesting: "When the constitutional simillimum matches the resentments, hates, fears, and anguishes derived from the conflicts between the dynamic personality and the social personality, it is capable of rectifying the vis medicatrix and establishing an adaptive equilibrium which nevertheless, is not [my emphasis] true health. Emotional tensions will give way, organic and functional ailments which are their consequence will disappear, and the reversible pathological structures will return to normal, However the individual must continue the process of growth, which always implies a simultaneous state of disease and healing-an unstable balance between the latent, psoric, existential anguish due to the repression of instincts, and the gratifications that the social personality will allow. Only when we realize that our psychological and biological maturity does not consist of defending our separate individuality, preserving our self-centeredness, or solving our existential insecurity by accumulating material goods and obtaining power, but in developing a sense of community that will allow us to be rid of our self-consciousness, we are able to fulfill our highest purpose of existence. As Hahnemann maintained, this is possible once the will has been rectified by the simillimum." Clearly, his concept of "true health" is a consciousness of what is beyond our notion of separateness, the health of the ego made possible by the curative effect of the similar remedy.

Naturally, when a practitioner advances so many deep and fascinating ideas, we are curious about their case work. Although only six cases are titled, there are at least 14 others that serve to illustrate the text. All are instructive cases, well-presented and well-analyzed. Repertorizations and remedy differentials are often included. One of his passages on the evaluation of symptoms: "Strange and peculiar symptoms must be understood in terms of an individual's psychological evolution. How a symptom will rank will depend on its function in a totality that gives personal character to a morbid process." Paschero sums this up as the "minimum syndrome of maximum value."

He speaks in detail about the importance of treating the "presenting picture," and this is evident in many of his cases. He gives the totality of the current symptoms, prescribes what appears to be a very suitable remedy, and in time, the next, deeper layer appears. The second prescription often ends the case. He lays great stress on seeing beyond the obvious symptoms, or even what the patient may "appear to be saying," to what they are actually saying, the true disturbance that generates the compensatory behaviors.

He gives a brief but useful discussion about how to study materia medica. He suggests we learn a remedy, "absorb" a remedy in such a way that it becomes a whole. Knowing a remedy is often compared to being able to recognize a person, that you know by their eyes, hair color, etc., that it is them and not someone else. Dr. Paschero says we need to know a remedy from different perspectives, and should be able to recognize it even when the information is incomplete. The notion of remedy perspectives, to me, fits the friend analogy equally well, because even when a friend walks away or turns sideways, we have little doubt as to who it is. The individual stamp of a remedy should be known from many perspectives. We should master the mentals first, then the generals, the major distinguishing modalities, and then the sphere of action through the particulars, e.g., in order to distinguish between the congestion of Belladonna and the catarrh of Bryonia.

A recommendation that made me sit up and take notice was that of studying one remedy per week, revising characteristics every day, and comparisons with other remedies regarding digestion, circulatory and respiratory systems, etc.-good advice for any practitioner. Finally, he stressed the importance of using a variety of texts, as authors all have their own biases. "As in daily life, an individual is known in as many ways as the number of friends he has." The 15 remedy pictures with comparisons he discusses are well-known, but have that quality of certainty that comes from many years of clinical experience, and are well worth reading.

Apparent in his writing is the struggle Dr. Paschero fought on behalf of Hahnemannian Homeopathy versus other methods, e.g. using a small totality such as in organopathy, treating disease diagnoses, or dosing with multiple remedies, all of which he discusses in the chapter "Unicism and Pluralism."' He states . ..... no conscientious physician can delude himself regarding so-called 'cures' that do not come from rational therapeutic prin- ciples, nor from Homeopathy in the true sense of the word. Whether with massive or minimum doses, the greatest aggression that any therapeutic system can commit is to suppress symptoms and expressions which should have been respected. They may sometimes be vicarious, at other times meaningful integrating factors of a vital unit, but they always perform a releasing and necessary function."

Dr. Paschero was a little-known but important homeopathic philosopher, teacher and practitioner of the twentieth century. 'This book contains a wealth of insightful information and may in time rank alongside the great classic texts.

Simillimum, Fall 2001
Volume XIV, Issue Three

This book review is reprinted with permission from Homeopathic Links.

Reviewed by Linda Johnston

Knowledge, in all its aspects, brings our understanding to the fore. However you define excellence in prescribing, knowledge is always an essential ingredient. Who we are as a person is the most important factor in how we live our life, and thus also in how we practise as a homeopath.

Paschero's 'Homeopathy', a superb collection of his essays, weaves these insights, among many others, into the fabric of what homeopathy is, how it works and what it means to be a homeopath.

I have always looked only to Hahnemann's 'Organon' and Kent's 'Lectures' as that master-work, whenever I needed to reinforce my footing in the ideas of homeopathy. The clarity of thought and uncom promising adherence to the principles of homeopathy in these books are always a sufficient and unswerving guide. I am delighted to say that now, after all these years, I have found another book to add to that duo - Paschero's 'Homeopathy'.

The tone of the book is already evident in his preface, 'These writings also reflect the influence that the process had in the unfolding of my vocation.

Any profession ... offers the possibility of satisfying a quest for the meaning of life as long as it is practised with integrity. Thus the dignity of the task depends on who carries it out and how it is carried out rather than what is actually done.' Wich one of us could say that we do not benefit enormously in our own spiritual and personal growth by being homeopaths?

Many materia medicas are being published year after year, and it is a real pleasure to see here instead, a book that has its emphasis on the basic, essential principles of homeopathy. The book does in fact devote one of its three sections to materia medica, but its primary strength lies in the wise and eminently applicable insights contained in the essays on philosophy.

We all recognise our need to be conversant with the philosophy of homeopathy, and that this should be ingrained in our minds to the point of its being second nature. Then and only then can symptoms be interpreted and the dynamics of healing truly take place. As Paschero puts it, 'Before undertaking clinical practice, it is of the utmost importance to acquire a firm philosophical foundation as well as a faith in homeopathic doctrine', and 'Wen the homeopath wholeheartedly accepts the philosophical principles that underpin homeopathy, he or she can develop the perceptive abilities necessary for understanding patients and their diseases.' This is why so much care is taken in explaining these basic ideas. 'Many homeopaths have failed because they thought clinical practice to be more important than an understanding of the basic principles.' In fact, successful clinical practice is not possible without them. How much of your own study time is spent learning materia medica and how much is spent deepening your understanding of philosophy? \"en did you last read the 'Organon'? If I emphasise this point, it is because Paschero's 'Homeopathy' also emphasises the point, and in a thorough yet extremely readable and enjoyable way.

One basic principle discussed in many different ways is that of our grasp of the holistic perspective. 'The physician, no matter what therapeutics he employs, must be aware that every symptom is a part of the patient's life context. Each symptom has a meaning to be unlocked, once a complete understanding has been gained of the pathological expression and behaviour of a unique and untold human life.' If this seems self-evident, just recall how many homeopaths prescribe on isolated symptoms or give more than one remedy at a time. Paschero addresses the issue in his chapter 'Unicism and Pluralism'. If there was ever a doubt in your mind on the matter, this will clarify the case for single remedy prescribing for you. 'Hahnemann established as a basic clinical principle the unity of the patient's reaction, that is, the totality of symptoms that reflect the dynamic derangement. This very personal total symptom picture can never be the expression of an affected isolated organ or a disturbed localised function.'

Furthermore, Paschero has the courage to state that prescribing on isolated symptoms rather than the dynamic totality, in addition to violating the fundamental tenets of homeopathy, can be suppressive and can cause great harm. Few singleremedy, constitutional prescribers take that logical step, despite its being so selfevident from the philosophy of homeopathy in the writings of Hahnemann.

Another of the many topics on which Paschero sheds light is his discussion on the deep, holistic, constitutional understanding of the patient. He states the issue beautifully: 'The unconscious tension we call instinct is the psychic expression of that emotional will, transmitting the requirements of cellular activity to the conscious awareness. That is why the organic will the deep necessity that appears in the conscious ego as a motivation to act - is what best defines the nature of being and best summarises an individual's symptom picture', and 'We all live the unconscious reality of our innermost being and this determines not only the complex mechanism of our will but also the energetic quality of the vital force that regulates our bodily functions.'

There is the brilliant insight that the svmptoms report that the patient gives us is clouded by the very illness we are trying to cure. 'The homeopath works with the svmptoms that the patient translates though a compromised ego (self), "falsified" by those very compromises destined to defend it from his instincts. More than just hearing them, the homeopath must try to "see" them and interpret them through, and in spite of, the patient's ego.' How can we bypass these distracting and illusionary symptoms and feelings to get to the real essence of the vital force's morbid disorder? The first step is to understand the workings of the personality, psyche and the healing process. Once more, the theme of knowledge and deep understanding is emphasised. Fortunately, much of that knowledge can be gained in this book.

Although I said the materia medica section was not the main strength of the book, it is still worthwhile since it develops the perspective introduced and elaborated in the two previous sections. In fact, the first sentence of the introduction to the section stronglv advises that we must: absorb the remedies in such a way that we are able to "see" and "feel" each one as a whole'. Again he links the intuitive skills of the homeopath to a previous intensive study and assimilation of knowledge. Intuition, he emphasises, is: '... a synthesis of the elements acquired by the intellect and therefore one of the higher function of knowledge.' Further, he makes a warning that I think should be a central tenet of every aspiring homeopath: 'No matter how desirable intuition may be, it would be a dangerous error to rely merely on hunches rather than acquiring complete information on the remedy.' With these ideas as our mission statement, we all could achieve excellence in our understanding and in our practice.

The essays on materia medica deal mainly with some of the mental and general symptoms that he has found most interesting. Although these discussions are not as complete as in the fuller materia medicas, they draw on his vast experience and are therefore worthy of note. What I found particularly helpful, however, are the philosophical comments woven into these remedy discussions - for example, 'Localised reactions express the vital intention of the whole person.' This reminds us of what Paschero so frequently emphasises in the earlier sections that physical symptoms are expressing exactly the same message as the mental state.

I have limited my comments to just a few samples of the author's writings to give you the flavour of this amazing book. It has been difficult to choose between the hundreds of quotable passages, wonderful insights and eloquent turns of phrase.

Needless to add, I highly recommend it and expect that once you have read it you will find yourself rereading it over and over again like the other important classic works.

Lastly, as a bibliophile, I would like to comment on the quality of the publication itself. As is customary from Beaconsfield Publishers, the book is beautiful and of high quality. The binding is solid, the paper is first-rate and the font is clear and easy on the eye to read.

In Hahnemann's 'Organon' I found the foundation wisdom, in Kent's 'Lectures on Homeopathic Philosophy', the understanding, and now, in Paschero's 'Homoeopathy', I have found the poetry.

Recensie

This book review is reprinted with the permission of the National Center for Homeopathy

Reviewed by Jay Yasgur RPh, MSc

Homeopathy is the latest offering in a long line of fine homeopathic books from the British publisher Beaconsfield. It is the first English edition of 35 lectures which the great Argentinian teacher and master of homeopathy, Tomas Paschero (19O4-1986), gave. Paschero's father, a butcher by trade, wanted his son to do the same, but fortunately for homeopathy he did not, deciding to study medicine instead. He converted to homeopathy after witnessing the cure of an obstinate case of eczema and later studied with the Kentian homeopaths William Griggs, Eugene Underhill, and Julia Minerva-Green, eventually becoming a disciple of Arthur Grimmer.

Paschero established the Asociacion Medica Homeopatica Argentina in 1933, founded the Escuela Medica Homeopatica in 1972, and was President of the LIGA in 1973. He was truly a potent beacon spreading the luminescence of homeopathy far and wide among our Latin American neighbors.

This book of lectures is divided into three categories: doctrine, clinical aspects, and materia medica.

In the 1963 lecture, "Finding the Simillimum," he shows his Kentian colors by stating:

"Mental symptoms are not restricted to conscious psychological expressions or a person's behaviour. Mental symptoms are classified as symptoms of the will, intelligence, emotions and memory. Symptoms pertaining to the will refer to instinctive tendencies that determine desires and aversions regarding a person's relationship with life and fellow human beings, or even desires and aversions linked to our instinct for preservation-of our own selves or of our species-such as food preferences and sexuality. Our instinctiveness is grounded in the unconscious will that emerges from the innermost depths of our being, where vital energy presides over metabolic changes in the cell and structures our psychophysical personality."-p. 90

And later, in a comparative materia medica lecture (1955), he offers a bit of psychological jam between delicious slices of Sepia and Lycopodium:

"We have seen that behind Lycopodium's facade of haughtiness, pride, misanthropy, disdainful indifference and domineering attitude, lies a deep, hidden lack of self-confidence, a trepidation and timidity which fills him with anxiety due to the conflict between what he wants to be but cannot, between his desire for self- affirmation and what is permitted by society. In contrast, Sepia's anxiety is caused by the conflict between the active, masculine-oriented desire for success and self-affirmation, and the emotional coldness or inability to give affection, which is an essentially passive, feminine trait. This is why Sepia is generally a female remedy. While Lycopodium's conflict is one of active self-affirmation, Sepia's conflict is one of passive, emotional and sexual giving."-p. 207

Paschero doesn't stop there but continues to weave interesting thoughts on sexuality, frigidity, aggressiveness, anxiety, and self-reproach.

This book is a nice series of well translated lectures and would be a good addition to your bookshelf if you don't have anything by this 20th century homeopathic master. It possesses two indices; remedy and general. It is a quality paperback (sewn and wrapped) and thus should enjoy a long and servile life, just as its esteemed author!

Homeopathy Today, June 2001, Volume 21, Number 6

This book review is reprinted with the permission of the Homeopathic Academy of Naturopathic Physicians

Reviewed by Barbara Osawa CCH

I was first introduced to the writings of Dr. Paschero years ago at a seminar. What impressed me then was his ability to grasp what David Little calls the disease "gestalt," to present a synthesis of the totality of the therapeutic cornerstone, "what is to be cured," in a way that was both fascinating and illuminating. I have eagerly awaited a translation of his work in English, and commend Beaconsfield Publishers for this worthy addition to the modem classical literature.

Tomas Paschero was born in Buenos Aires in 1904. He traveled to the US in 1934 on a research trip where he worked with Dr. William Griggs, Dr. Eugene Underhill, and Dr. Julia Green. He was then accepted as a disciple of Dr. Grimmer, Kent's immediate successor, with whom he formed a close personal and professional relationship. Dr. Paschero was the founder of the Escuela Medica Homeopatica in Argentina and was elected president of the International Homeopathic Medical League in 1973. This book is a collection of Dr. Paschero's writings and cases that spans his long and productive career.

"Precisely because humility is required, the art of medicine is an occupation of the highest spiritual order." This quote from the preface of the book captures the essence of the author, whose dedication to the highest order of cure and deep knowledge of human nature shines on every page of this book. Among the noteworthy names scattered throughout the text, Paschero seems particularly influenced by Samuel Hahnemann's homeopathic principles and Sigmund Freud's division of the psyche into the conscious and unconscious, His unique ability to synthesize the problems of the human psyche with the principles of homeopathic practice make this book essential reading for the serious practitioner.

'Me book is divided into three parts: philosophical writings, clinical practice and materia medica of 15 remedies. The early lectures elaborate on Hahnemann's vitalistic principles and other essential topics, including miasms, casetaking, evaluating symptoms, second prescriptions, and prognosis. He points out on page 1, that "Hahnemann doesn't begin his Organon by expounding the law of similarity... but by pointing out that the one and only lofty mission of the physician is to cure. He maintains that in order to cure a patient, the physician must understand the biological and emotional maladjustment within that individual's environment as a process involving the whole person." It is in this complex, anthropological view of disease, elucidated over many pages, that he reveals his extraordinary psychological insight and profound knowledge of vital disturbance according to Hahnemann. He opens the book by claiming that every physician must take up the mission of defending the value of Hahnemann's principles and that there are two requirements, the assimilation of the principles and a certain level of self-awareness. The latter domain may have been Dr. Paschero's true calling.

His teaching resounds with philosophy, whether he is talking about health, disease or a cured case. Rather than attempt an explanation of these broad and important concepts, I've selected some quotes that give some idea of the depth of his thinking.

"Psychologically we reach maturity as human beings when we transcend the self-centered phase, where we try to manipulate people and events according to our own self-interest, into an altruistic, objective stage in which we acknowledge the reality and needs of others as much as our own. In Homeopathy, the patient is considered as a whole person who, as his personality evolves, develops adaptive responses to his environment."

"Life is a medium through which we can fully realize our potential. Disease is a struggle against the limitations of the inner and outer worlds, obstacles for the realization of the true self. The organism, with its complex psychosomatic structure, and the personality together serve a purpose which can be determined only by the innermost self that struggles to emerge to the light of consciousness. Seen in this way, the human being has two conflicting value systems: on the one hand, disease as a physical expression of change in the vital rhythm, inhibiting the free expression of the life force; on the other hand, the essential value of being which fulfills a specific, personal life cycle in order to develop an awareness of its own reality."

"Disease is a process of adaptation to the environment, to the social and biological world that surrounds the individual. This adaptation is not only instinctive but also produced by the intelligence-the ability to decide, reason, and assess circumstances-which is why disease, or adaptation, is a problem of freedom. Disease presents itself as a complex effect of immediate or distant causes that have settled in the patient's character, symptoms and pathology. Inevitably, this synthetic vision of the clinical symptom picture is the result of a deep perception of chronic disease. When the physician aims to understand the patient's whole history, he will arrive at the constitutional diathesis that generated the current pathological process."

However, it is his writings on mental symptoms that are particularly insightful and obviously of great importance, dominating most chapters of the book. Like many others, Paschero brings a blend of influences to bear on this subject, but the end result is his own unique perspective. He begins a lecture on the subject with questions prefaced in the following way. "It is from this soul, dynamis, psyche, or mind, where the elements that give unity to the organism reside, that the homeopath draws the mental symptoms that express the total reaction to the patient. But what are these mental symptoms and why do they represent the organic totality of the human being? Furthermore, what meaning do the metaphysical terms 'soul' and 'spirit' have for the modem, scientifically oriented physician?" He maintains that human reason is recent in creation and, being beyond animal instincts, is the most important organ of consciousness, conferring special meaning to the problem of disease.

'Me human, he says is not an organism, but has an organism that belongs to his or her being. "Medicine cannot be merely biological, it is also anthropological. Anthropology is human biology-that is, biology made up of physical, mental, and spiritual elements." From here, he further distinguishes personality as being "the myth that each of us lives in aspiration of the regard of others, of success and self-affirmation" and person as "what we are in our innermost depths; it is what conditions our moods, what we express through our unconscious will, and from where our motivations to act originate." His description of the psyche is very much the Freudian trio of id, ego and superego. He says, "The three distinct formations arise from the undifferentiated mass of impulses and tendencies that Hahnemann called the vital force, Freud called 'libido' or life instinct and Bergson called elan vital."

Continuing in the same vein, "What we call 'spirit,' then is not some transcendental state of an exceptionally evolved human being, but that capacity for awareness of our own selves as subjects as well as objects within a world whose reality we must cope." Concluding this discussion, he says, "In order to discover what is behind a patient's mental symptoms, it is essential for the homeopath to be familiar with the various defense mechanisms that an individual may employ."

He finally connects the origins of mental disturbance with suppression, and therefore the miasms. "From the depths of vitality in the 'human being rise currents of energy that seek release throughout the whole organism, from the center to the periphery, from the more vital organs to the less vital organs, from the mind to the excretory organs... when this outward flow of energy is blocked, the initial stages of disease are produced. Hahnemann called this psora, which is the basic disorder characterized by suppression in all its forms. Hahnemann considered mental metastasis to be the deepest and most entrenched stage of the morbid process."

From his notes on the miasms: "What happens is that human instincts and impulses have been deranged in their dynamic origin-they have been disturbed by a miasmatic affection which compromises their functional tendency towards transforming the individual into a mature person." Paschero likens this to what Freud called the individual disposition, noted in the formidable resistance of many neurotics undergoing psycho-analysis.

In the chapter titled "Curing the Constitutional Disease," he details his understanding of the miasms according to Hahnemann. Much of the discussion will be familiar to those acquainted with the writings of Hahnemann, J. H. Allen, and Kent on the subject. Generally, be discusses the miasms in terms of their mental images and stages of life. 'Mere are two topics that might be considered unusual.

First, he claims that all children are tubercular . ...... They are born with diminished organic functions, which are psora together with syphilis-whose psychological trait is that same basic feeling of insecurity or inferiority." As he has passed away, we can't ask him to clarify this.

I found this quote from the last part of the chapter particularly interesting: "When the constitutional simillimum matches the resentments, hates, fears, and anguishes derived from the conflicts between the dynamic personality and the social personality, it is capable of rectifying the vis medicatrix and establishing an adaptive equilibrium which nevertheless, is not [my emphasis] true health. Emotional tensions will give way, organic and functional ailments which are their consequence will disappear, and the reversible pathological structures will return to normal, However the individual must continue the process of growth, which always implies a simultaneous state of disease and healing-an unstable balance between the latent, psoric, existential anguish due to the repression of instincts, and the gratifications that the social personality will allow. Only when we realize that our psychological and biological maturity does not consist of defending our separate individuality, preserving our self-centeredness, or solving our existential insecurity by accumulating material goods and obtaining power, but in developing a sense of community that will allow us to be rid of our self-consciousness, we are able to fulfill our highest purpose of existence. As Hahnemann maintained, this is possible once the will has been rectified by the simillimum." Clearly, his concept of "true health" is a consciousness of what is beyond our notion of separateness, the health of the ego made possible by the curative effect of the similar remedy.

Naturally, when a practitioner advances so many deep and fascinating ideas, we are curious about their case work. Although only six cases are titled, there are at least 14 others that serve to illustrate the text. All are instructive cases, well-presented and well-analyzed. Repertorizations and remedy differentials are often included. One of his passages on the evaluation of symptoms: "Strange and peculiar symptoms must be understood in terms of an individual's psychological evolution. How a symptom will rank will depend on its function in a totality that gives personal character to a morbid process." Paschero sums this up as the "minimum syndrome of maximum value."

He speaks in detail about the importance of treating the "presenting picture," and this is evident in many of his cases. He gives the totality of the current symptoms, prescribes what appears to be a very suitable remedy, and in time, the next, deeper layer appears. The second prescription often ends the case. He lays great stress on seeing beyond the obvious symptoms, or even what the patient may "appear to be saying," to what they are actually saying, the true disturbance that generates the compensatory behaviors.

He gives a brief but useful discussion about how to study materia medica. He suggests we learn a remedy, "absorb" a remedy in such a way that it becomes a whole. Knowing a remedy is often compared to being able to recognize a person, that you know by their eyes, hair color, etc., that it is them and not someone else. Dr. Paschero says we need to know a remedy from different perspectives, and should be able to recognize it even when the information is incomplete. The notion of remedy perspectives, to me, fits the friend analogy equally well, because even when a friend walks away or turns sideways, we have little doubt as to who it is. The individual stamp of a remedy should be known from many perspectives. We should master the mentals first, then the generals, the major distinguishing modalities, and then the sphere of action through the particulars, e.g., in order to distinguish between the congestion of Belladonna and the catarrh of Bryonia.

A recommendation that made me sit up and take notice was that of studying one remedy per week, revising characteristics every day, and comparisons with other remedies regarding digestion, circulatory and respiratory systems, etc.-good advice for any practitioner. Finally, he stressed the importance of using a variety of texts, as authors all have their own biases. "As in daily life, an individual is known in as many ways as the number of friends he has." The 15 remedy pictures with comparisons he discusses are well-known, but have that quality of certainty that comes from many years of clinical experience, and are well worth reading.

Apparent in his writing is the struggle Dr. Paschero fought on behalf of Hahnemannian Homeopathy versus other methods, e.g. using a small totality such as in organopathy, treating disease diagnoses, or dosing with multiple remedies, all of which he discusses in the chapter "Unicism and Pluralism."' He states . ..... no conscientious physician can delude himself regarding so-called 'cures' that do not come from rational therapeutic prin- ciples, nor from Homeopathy in the true sense of the word. Whether with massive or minimum doses, the greatest aggression that any therapeutic system can commit is to suppress symptoms and expressions which should have been respected. They may sometimes be vicarious, at other times meaningful integrating factors of a vital unit, but they always perform a releasing and necessary function."

Dr. Paschero was a little-known but important homeopathic philosopher, teacher and practitioner of the twentieth century. 'This book contains a wealth of insightful information and may in time rank alongside the great classic texts.

Simillimum, Fall 2001
Volume XIV, Issue Three

This book review is reprinted with permission from Homeopathic Links.

Reviewed by Linda Johnston

Knowledge, in all its aspects, brings our understanding to the fore. However you define excellence in prescribing, knowledge is always an essential ingredient. Who we are as a person is the most important factor in how we live our life, and thus also in how we practise as a homeopath.

Paschero's 'Homeopathy', a superb collection of his essays, weaves these insights, among many others, into the fabric of what homeopathy is, how it works and what it means to be a homeopath.

I have always looked only to Hahnemann's 'Organon' and Kent's 'Lectures' as that master-work, whenever I needed to reinforce my footing in the ideas of homeopathy. The clarity of thought and uncom promising adherence to the principles of homeopathy in these books are always a sufficient and unswerving guide. I am delighted to say that now, after all these years, I have found another book to add to that duo - Paschero's 'Homeopathy'.

The tone of the book is already evident in his preface, 'These writings also reflect the influence that the process had in the unfolding of my vocation.

Any profession ... offers the possibility of satisfying a quest for the meaning of life as long as it is practised with integrity. Thus the dignity of the task depends on who carries it out and how it is carried out rather than what is actually done.' Wich one of us could say that we do not benefit enormously in our own spiritual and personal growth by being homeopaths?

Many materia medicas are being published year after year, and it is a real pleasure to see here instead, a book that has its emphasis on the basic, essential principles of homeopathy. The book does in fact devote one of its three sections to materia medica, but its primary strength lies in the wise and eminently applicable insights contained in the essays on philosophy.

We all recognise our need to be conversant with the philosophy of homeopathy, and that this should be ingrained in our minds to the point of its being second nature. Then and only then can symptoms be interpreted and the dynamics of healing truly take place. As Paschero puts it, 'Before undertaking clinical practice, it is of the utmost importance to acquire a firm philosophical foundation as well as a faith in homeopathic doctrine', and 'Wen the homeopath wholeheartedly accepts the philosophical principles that underpin homeopathy, he or she can develop the perceptive abilities necessary for understanding patients and their diseases.' This is why so much care is taken in explaining these basic ideas. 'Many homeopaths have failed because they thought clinical practice to be more important than an understanding of the basic principles.' In fact, successful clinical practice is not possible without them. How much of your own study time is spent learning materia medica and how much is spent deepening your understanding of philosophy? \"en did you last read the 'Organon'? If I emphasise this point, it is because Paschero's 'Homeopathy' also emphasises the point, and in a thorough yet extremely readable and enjoyable way.

One basic principle discussed in many different ways is that of our grasp of the holistic perspective. 'The physician, no matter what therapeutics he employs, must be aware that every symptom is a part of the patient's life context. Each symptom has a meaning to be unlocked, once a complete understanding has been gained of the pathological expression and behaviour of a unique and untold human life.' If this seems self-evident, just recall how many homeopaths prescribe on isolated symptoms or give more than one remedy at a time. Paschero addresses the issue in his chapter 'Unicism and Pluralism'. If there was ever a doubt in your mind on the matter, this will clarify the case for single remedy prescribing for you. 'Hahnemann established as a basic clinical principle the unity of the patient's reaction, that is, the totality of symptoms that reflect the dynamic derangement. This very personal total symptom picture can never be the expression of an affected isolated organ or a disturbed localised function.'

Furthermore, Paschero has the courage to state that prescribing on isolated symptoms rather than the dynamic totality, in addition to violating the fundamental tenets of homeopathy, can be suppressive and can cause great harm. Few singleremedy, constitutional prescribers take that logical step, despite its being so selfevident from the philosophy of homeopathy in the writings of Hahnemann.

Another of the many topics on which Paschero sheds light is his discussion on the deep, holistic, constitutional understanding of the patient. He states the issue beautifully: 'The unconscious tension we call instinct is the psychic expression of that emotional will, transmitting the requirements of cellular activity to the conscious awareness. That is why the organic will the deep necessity that appears in the conscious ego as a motivation to act - is what best defines the nature of being and best summarises an individual's symptom picture', and 'We all live the unconscious reality of our innermost being and this determines not only the complex mechanism of our will but also the energetic quality of the vital force that regulates our bodily functions.'

There is the brilliant insight that the svmptoms report that the patient gives us is clouded by the very illness we are trying to cure. 'The homeopath works with the svmptoms that the patient translates though a compromised ego (self), "falsified" by those very compromises destined to defend it from his instincts. More than just hearing them, the homeopath must try to "see" them and interpret them through, and in spite of, the patient's ego.' How can we bypass these distracting and illusionary symptoms and feelings to get to the real essence of the vital force's morbid disorder? The first step is to understand the workings of the personality, psyche and the healing process. Once more, the theme of knowledge and deep understanding is emphasised. Fortunately, much of that knowledge can be gained in this book.

Although I said the materia medica section was not the main strength of the book, it is still worthwhile since it develops the perspective introduced and elaborated in the two previous sections. In fact, the first sentence of the introduction to the section stronglv advises that we must: absorb the remedies in such a way that we are able to "see" and "feel" each one as a whole'. Again he links the intuitive skills of the homeopath to a previous intensive study and assimilation of knowledge. Intuition, he emphasises, is: '... a synthesis of the elements acquired by the intellect and therefore one of the higher function of knowledge.' Further, he makes a warning that I think should be a central tenet of every aspiring homeopath: 'No matter how desirable intuition may be, it would be a dangerous error to rely merely on hunches rather than acquiring complete information on the remedy.' With these ideas as our mission statement, we all could achieve excellence in our understanding and in our practice.

The essays on materia medica deal mainly with some of the mental and general symptoms that he has found most interesting. Although these discussions are not as complete as in the fuller materia medicas, they draw on his vast experience and are therefore worthy of note. What I found particularly helpful, however, are the philosophical comments woven into these remedy discussions - for example, 'Localised reactions express the vital intention of the whole person.' This reminds us of what Paschero so frequently emphasises in the earlier sections that physical symptoms are expressing exactly the same message as the mental state.

I have limited my comments to just a few samples of the author's writings to give you the flavour of this amazing book. It has been difficult to choose between the hundreds of quotable passages, wonderful insights and eloquent turns of phrase.

Needless to add, I highly recommend it and expect that once you have read it you will find yourself rereading it over and over again like the other important classic works.

Lastly, as a bibliophile, I would like to comment on the quality of the publication itself. As is customary from Beaconsfield Publishers, the book is beautiful and of high quality. The binding is solid, the paper is first-rate and the font is clear and easy on the eye to read.

In Hahnemann's 'Organon' I found the foundation wisdom, in Kent's 'Lectures on Homeopathic Philosophy', the understanding, and now, in Paschero's 'Homoeopathy', I have found the poetry.